Romania was a vitally important country during WW2, that is often understated in both pop culture and academia. They are underrepresented and often are only represented in order to be used as a scapegoat for German failures in their Crimean and Southern -Front Campaign during 1941-1944. Romania is also a country with a deep and rich military history, providing a new insight into the war from an alternative perspective. They were also a massive player in the entire socio-political makeup of the Balkans and Black Sea Region right the way from their formation as a modern 19th Century nation.
Romania pre-World War One
To understand Romania, we must understand its geographical and political position in Europe and its importance in antiquity. Romania has a long history, stretching all the way back to pre-historic times, and was vitally important in the Greek, Roman and Persian worlds due to the port of Constanta, or as it’s known in the Jason and the Argonauts Myth, as the city of Tomis. Romania, as we know it, was originally made of four distinct areas, which throughout antiquity fought, united and fractured under the Roman occupation. These four regions, known as Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia and Dobrogea each had their own customs, languages and tribes. However, the modern state, or Greater Romania, did not exist formally until the 1870s.
Credit: Mariusz Paździora & Spiridon Ion Cepleanu
Prior to around 1850, Romanian land had swapped hands between the Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire and Russian Empire, with the general rule being the Ottoman Empire had the regions of Wallachia and Dobrogea, the Austro-Hungarian Empire taking Transylvania and the Russian Empire taking Moldavia. During the Romantic Period, often called the ‘National Awakening’ Romanian Nationalists began a series of skirmishes in 1850 in an attempt to unite Wallachia and Moldavia.
However, it wasn’t until 1877 that there was a serious attempt to unite Romania. In the war of Romanian Independence from 24th April 1877 to the 3rd March 1878, Romanian nationalists fought with Russian support against the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Romanians chose Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-SIgmarigen, who had been their Prince Regent from 1866 when under the control of the Austro-Hungarians, to be their new King. He immediately adopted the Romanian spelling of Carol. Heavily influenced by the Habsburgs, Carol looked to modernise Romania and heavily drew from French philosophy, architecture, and culture; until the beginning of World War 2, Bucharest was known as ‘Little Paris’. Romania chose to abstain from the First Balkans War of 1912, however seeing weakness in the Tsardom of Bulgaria following this war, they joined the second Balkans War of 1913, and gained the territory of Dobrogea, which Romania had sought after ever since the war of Independence as it would give them a vital link to the Black Sea, via the Port of Constanta, and ultimately the wider world.
Romania during World War One
To understand Romania’s involvement in World War Two, we must look in-depth at the events of the interwar period on 1918-1940. This tumultuous time for Romania not only cemented their aims for the War, but also their attitude towards the war. Romania joined World War One in 1916 after being a neutral power. They joined on the side of the Allies, being sandwiched between not only Austro-Hungaria and the Ottoman Empire, but because of Bulgaria being on the side of the Central Powers also. By 1918, Romania had suffered over 500,000 casualties, and sued for peace in May 1918. However, seeing the weakness of the Central Powers, they remobilised troops on the 10th November 1918, one day before the Armistice was due to come into effect. Then on the 1st December 1918, representatives from Transylvania, a protectorate of the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire, joined the Kingdom of Romania. At the Paris Peace Conference, Romania formally received Transylvania, Banat, and Bessarabia. However, before being ratified, the Communist Uprising in Hungary, lead by Trade Unionist Bela Kun broke out, causing the Romanian-Hungarian War to break out in March 1919. In April, Hungarian forces overwhelmed Romanian forces in Transylvania and the Banat region, however, a Romanian counteroffensive smashed the Hungarian Occupation Force and marched in Budapest, the Hungarian Capital.
Romanian troops occupying Budapest, 1919
Credit: Tormay, Cecile. An Outlaw’s Diary. Vol. 1. London: Philip Alan & Co, 1923
In July 1919, Admiral Miklos Horthy, a Hungarian Anti-Communist and Nationalist organized a counterforce against the Communist ‘Insurgents’ and the occupying Romanian forces. The Coup is successful and the Romanian forces are forced to retreat back over the border in early 1920. The League of Nations forced the Romanian forces to formally withdraw troops from Romania soon afterward.
Following this, the League forced Hungary to sign the Treaty of Trianon. Hungary forced to hand over the seized lands of Transylvania, Partium and Banat as reparations, and formally recognise Romanian sovereignty over these regions.
Credit: Mariusz Paździora & Spiridon Ion Cepleanu
As we see here, this had a huge impact on the ethnic makeup of Hungary and Romania. Romania gained approximately 31.6% of the ethnic Hungarian population, as well as Ethnic Germans, Slovaks, Ruthenians, and others. In a little under 40 years, Romania had managed to solidify itself as a modern nation-state, and unite the entire Romanian ethnic population under one flag, would play a vital role in the years to come, and their position as a belligerent during World War Two and the Holocaust.
Political Changes in Romania
Internal political change in the 1930s again shaped the way Romania approached the war, as well as their reasons for neutrality. King Ferdinand died in 1927, and his son Carol II assumed the throne. Immediately there was issues. Carol renounced his marriage to his wife, Queen Helen of Greece and Denmark, and moves with his mistress, Magda Lupescu, to Paris, leaving his son Mihai I incharge, at aged 5. A regency government ruled in place of the young King Mihai. He later returned to restore order after the Iron Legion begins political assassinations and recrowns himself, being the only time in history a father has succeeded a son.
In 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, commonly known as the Nazi-Soviet Pact. It is more commonly know to be the pact that saw a military and defence alliance formed to invade Poland, however it had much wider reaching implacations than just for Poland, the Soviet Union and NAzi Germany. The Kremlin demanded that Romania relinquish its control of Bessarabia and Bukovina to the Soviet Union in order to avoid an all out conflict with the Soviet Union. In addition, Hungary demanded the return of the Banat Region back to Hungarian control. After talks broke down and Romania threatened war, the Hitler stepped in, and mediated. During secret talks, Hitler ensured that Romania would be able to regain the lost territory in the near future. The Greater Romanian project now seemed like a fledgling dream in the mind of some disconnected nationalists it seemed.
Polish-Romanian Border, 1939
Credit: Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Following the loss of land, Anti-Government demonstrations broke out, leading to riots in September 1939. These riots were agitated by the Iron Legion, an ultra nationalist group led by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. Ion Antonescu, a Commander-in-Chief of the Army was invited to become Prime Minister. Antonescu, although of nationalist and military background, was not much liked by Hitler or Mussolini, due to his ideological differences and his obsession with a Judeo-Masonic World Order as opposed to a Judeo-Bolshevik World Order. In addition, he did not share the same expansionist views as Hitler and Mussolini; initially, up until 1941, Antonescu only wished to reclaim the land that he been lost in 1939. To add insult to injury, Bulgaria also demanded the return of Dobrogea, meaning Romania would lose their only Black Sea port. This move was again supported and mediated by Hitler.
Once Antonescu gained power, he forced King Carol II, who had resumed power, to abdicate in favour of his son Mihai I. Antonescu knew that Mihai was essentially no more than a formality, and would be unlikely to over rule any decisions he made. In November 1939, Antonescu signed the Tripartite Pact, which formally sided Romania with the Axis forces. Often this is attributed to Antonescu’s nationalist attitude. However it was important to remember that Neutrality was not going to be guaranteed due to the strategic nature of the oil reserves in Romania. France and Britain, Romania’s closest ancestral and training allies were an entire continent away, and were currently engaged fighting the Germans. Romania could not afford to enter into an all out war on Germany’s south-eastern border. In addition Hitler offered territorial gain as a reward for if Romania joined the war against the USSR. Germany also offered modern training and equipment to the Army and Air Force. For comparison, Romania only had 19 Infantry Divisions, approximately 332,500 combat ready soldiers; by comparison, Germany had 315 Infantry Divisions. Romania had primarily drawn most of their training from their experiences from World War One, and received much training between the wars from the French Army, and as such, they had a much higher ratio of artillery to infantry. In 1919, Romania had 381 Artillery Batteries consisting of 1,840 Artillery pieces.
Romanian politician Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, wearing Romanian peasant dress, inspects members of the Iron Legion, in Romania, circa 1934.
Credit:Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Following the decision to join the Axis forces, Hitler convinced Antonescu to pull Romania into the war effort against Russia. Antonescu had a deep seated hatred of Bolshevism and Russia, as he had previously served as soldier during the 1907 peasants revolt, second Balkans War and World War One.
Static War & Operation Munchen (June-July 1941)
The Static War began on the 22nd June 1941 when Romanian Forces from the 3rd Army prepared push over the Prut River into Moldavia. At 0300 hrs Air Force Recce crossed the border into Ukraine, and by 0315 the Army Air Corps were bombing strategic Soviet positions in Moldavia. A land offensive followed, however the real action began on the 26th June when five Soviet Warships attempt to blockade Constanta, however they are forced to retreat from sustained fire from the beach head. At Constanta there had been 2 153mm Naval Guns mounted into the defenses. The Warship Moskava was sunk after sustaining heavy shell fire and aerial bombardment, and after attempting to escape, ran into a sea mine, causing it’s magazine to explode. Of a 600 man crew, only 69 survived. Since May 1941, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht had been planning its invasion of the Soviet Union, inline with Hitler’s Lebensraum policy, titled Operation Barbarossa. The plan was postponed until July, due to the German invasion of Yugoslavia in April and better weather. On the 2nd July 1941, the 3rd and 4th Armies were subordinated to the German 11th Army, commanded by Colonel-General Eugen Ritter von Schobert.
Additionally, the OKW mobilised the 11th Army to partake in Operation Munchen, the land invasion of occupied Bessarabia. Joint German and Romanian forces, totally some 325,000 Romanian troops, 201 tanks and 670 aircraft pushed over the Prut River. 3 days later, Chernivisi and Chișinău were recaptured. On the 17th August 1941, Bessarabia and Bukovina were formally reintegrated in the Romanian state. Initially, Antonescu had only planned the Romanian involvement in the war to go this far. The Army was vastly outgunned and outnumbered by the Red Army and wouldn’t be able to take part in full frontal assaults. The OKW then ensured that Romanians would only be used as flank protection, offered them better training, equipment, motorised logistics and the chance to have certain areas of land.
Crimean Campaign (July 1941 – November 1942)
During Operation Munchen, Romanian forces had also been taking part in Operation Barbarossa. On the 17th July, Romanian forces crossed the Dniester River, and fought across the steppes. On the 10th August, the 3rd Army was moved to replace the Hungarian Rapid Corps at Voznezensk. After several weeks of fighting, the 3rd Army had captured some 12,700 Soviet PoWs. The success was continuing in the Crimean Peninsula, where the 4th Army captured the Odessa Water Reservoir, forcing a water ration in the city, where the average temperature was some 30 – 38 degrees. Fighting intensified around the cities of Odessa and Sevastopol, two key strategic port cities in Crimea. The Siege began with a huge aerial bombardment of nearby Soviet airfields to deny air superiority. However, there were two huge forts, designated Maxim Gorky I & II, both with 305mm naval batteries inside, which inflicted heavy casualties.
After the capture of Odessa’s water resoviour, 4th Army began its repeated assaults on the city and fortress. The assaults on the city, beginning on the 2nd August 1941, were some of the most deadly and costly for the 4th Army in the entire war. By the 23rd August, a total of 27,300 men had been killed, wounded or were missing. There was a lull in the assault following the 23rd August, which was shortly followed by the evacuation of the city on the 29th August. The German 11th Army had made a breakthrough into Sevastopol, meaning Odessa was the last bastion of Soviet control in the Crimean peninsula. With the full force of combined strength of the 3rd and 4th Romanian Armies, the German 11th Army, with support from Italian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and Croat forces bearing down on the city, STAVKA ordered a full evacuation of the city. On the 16th October, 4th Army captured Odessa at the expense of almost 100,000 men, 1/5th of the total men deployed in the entirety of the war. In addition, the Air Force had flown 5,524 sorties on the city, dropping a total of 1,249 tons of bombs on the city.
The most ambitious assault was yet to come.On the 17th November 1941, the Assault on Chapel Hill in Sevastopol began. Troops from the 1st Mountain Brigade and the 170th Infantry Division assaulted the hill, and for seven days hounded it with aerial bombardment, artillery fire and fought their way up the hillside, engaging in brutal hand to hand combat in the trenches, similar to the first world war. Using everything from flamethrowers, to shovels and even broken glass bottles in one instance, they finally captured the hill on the 23rd November. After just seven days, 1,261 men had either been killed or wounded.This action encapsulated the horror that was the battle of Sevastopol, and won the admiration of General Von Manstein, whom sent a personal telegram to Antonescu upon his promotion to Field Marshal stating.
“To Marshal Antonescu, I report the fall of Sevastopol. The Romanian divisions, which I had the honor to command, had fulfilled their duty. They had an essential contribution to the conquest of Bastion II, the attack through rough, wooded terrain against the Sapun Heights. Another Romanian division entered Sevastopol together with the German units. I think with profound gratitude to the sacrifices the Romanian Mountain Corps made for the final victory in Crimea.”Field Marshal Eric von Manstein.
Manstein awarding men of the 1st Vanatori (Mountain) Brigade with Iron Cross (2nd Class) in December 1941
Credit: Nitu, Victor. “Manstein’s Romanians in the Crimea.” The German Armed Forces 1918-1945. Feldgrau, February 11, 2018. https://www.feldgrau.com/WW2-Romanians-In-Crimea.
Starting in December 1941, Romanian units were rotated from the front back to barracks and placed in defensive positions along the Black Sea coast, and received new training from German Officers. Their training previously had been primarily based on First World War French and British doctrine, and was not suited for the fast moving, wide open spaces of the Russian steppes. They also received new weapons, such as more heavily armoured Panzerkampfwagen IV, redesignated as the T-4 Medium Tank, as well as more modern submachine guns, like the Machine Pistol 1940, and the Beretta Model 1938. They were also receiving a well deserved break, however, on the 26th December, Manstein ordered the beginning of Operation Trappenjagd, a surprise attack on the Taman Peninsula, a move to try and link up the Army Group South Forces that were pushing for the Caucaus Mountains and the troops on the Crimean Peninsula. Three days later however, the Operation was cancelled. Some units from the 1st Mountain Corps had been marched over 200km in blizzards, with temperatures reaching minus 30 degrees. The troops dug in over December and January withstanding 7 Soviet counter assaults.
Between February 1942 and March 1942, the 3rd and 4th Armies, alongside the German 11th dug in and withstood more assaults, whilst taking stock of their forces at their disposal. The total forces on the Crimean Front were 17 Infantry Divisions, 4 tank brigades and 176 fighters and 225 bombers, however most of these were on obsolete design. On the 19th May 1942, following the Spring Thaw, Manstein captured the Taman Peninsula, completely destroying three Soviet Armies, wiping out nine divisions and reduced nine more to ineffectiveness, with the aid of the Romanian 4th Army.
In the following months, Operation Case Blue was prepared for and put into effect on the 28th June 1942. In this, the forces of Army Group South would push through the Caucasus mountains, and link with other forces pushing from the north. A side objective of this was to capture the city of Stalingrad, a city of high strategic and cultural importance to the Soviet War Machine. On the 4th August, 3rd ARmy units crossed the Don River, which encircled the Northern Flank of Stalingrad. The inhabitants of the city knew there would be a seige and began preparing. Cavalry units pushed the Kurka Channel in order to read Stalingrad quickly, and by the 23rd August, units reached the outskirts of Stalingrad. Between August and November, units began entrenching on the flanks of the city. Romanian troops were assigned to the defence of both the Northern and Southern flanks of the city, and dug in alongside Italian, Croat and Hungarian soldiers.
Troops from the 14th Infantry Division dug in on the Northern Flank of Stalingrad, September 1942
Credit: Walsh, Stephen. Stalingrad – the Infernal Cauldron. Amber Books Ltd, 2013.
Following the encirclement of Stalingrad, two other strategic points were captured. On the 18th October, the Baksan River was captured, allowing yet another point of entry for the Romanian Army. This was executed at the loss of only 6 men, with the capture of 400 PoWs during the encirclement. 10 days later the city of Nalchik was captured. However, not with the same degree of success, as in just 10 days of fighting approximately 820 were killed. Following repeated Soviet mobilisation and action around Stalingrad, the 3rd Army was formerly allocated to Army Group Don, whilst the 4th Army is allocated to Army Group B during the counter offensive of the 19th November. The Soviet 3rd Army and 5th Tank Army began the assault on the 3rd Army, which had been reduced to 3 weak divisions. On a number of occasions they had to resort to hand to hand combat, using spades and molotov cocktails.
“Our tank hunters destroyed only with blankets and Molotov cocktails [destroyed] 150 Russian tanks. I think that the situation will clarify, with the condition the weather will allow flights.”
“The Russian losses are enormous and the ground taken does not worth such a waste in men and material. Several hundreds of tanks and almost 4 cavalry divisions were completely destroyed. The Romanian Armored Division made miracles of bravery. Had we at least 4 armored divisions, we would have dealt with the Bolsheviks in different terms.”– Memoirs of Lieutenant Colonel I. Chermanescu, 23rd – 30th November 1942
Credit: WorldWar2.ro – Lieutenant Colonel I. Chermanescu – In Russia. Campaign Notes 16 September 1942 – 3 January 1943. Accessed July 4, 2019. https://www.worldwar2.ro/memorii/?article=778.
The Soviets pushed a wedge between the forces inside the city and those outside. By the 28th December, the entirety of the centre of the city was surrounded, forming a pocket.
Credit:“Stalingrad Area 19 November-28 December 1942.” The Map Archive. Accessed October 4, 2019. https://www.themaparchive.com/stalingrad-area-19-november-28-december.html.
Post Stalingrad Retreat (September 1942 – August 1943)
By the withdrawal on the 7th January 1943, a total of 158,000 men had been killed, equating to approximately 16 of the 18 total divisions engaged in the offensive. Of the 91,000 prisoners captured from the pocket however, only 6,000 were Romanian soldiers. There had been a successful withdrawal of almost all the troops from the pocket and from the north and southern flanks. The troops recovered and began a retreat back through the Caucasus mountains. Due to the immense loses suffered at Stalingrad, when the 9th Cavalry Division was attacked on the 16th January 1943, the entire division had been stretched out to defend a 42km long stretch of the vanguard. The troops fell back to the Taman Bridgehead, which had been captured a mere 2 years beforehand during Operation Case Blue. The STAVKA amassed over 800 artillery pieces, 150 aircraft and 150 ships, as well as over 225 BM-13 Katyusha rocket launches,in order to bombard the retreating Axis forces. Beginning on the 25th February and only concluding on the 12th March, the Bridgehead was pounded with artillery and repeated assaults from the ground and by amphibious landings. During this campaign, a further 9,668 Romanians were either killed, wounded or missing, many drowning in the Black Sea.
BM-13 Katyusha rockets firing into the Carpathian Mountains in 1944
Credit: Smith, Rasheeda. “Weapons Manual: BM-13 Katyusha Rocket Launcher.” HistoryNet. HistoryNet, October 19, 2016. https://www.historynet.com/weapons-manual-bm-13-katyusha-rocket-launcher.htm.
Last Stand in Crimea and the Coup d’etat (August 1943 – August 1944)
On the 9th April 1944, the 2nd Ukrainian Front began their strategic offensive in North Romania and the battle of Târgu Frumos began. Three days later, the First Phase of Operation 60,000 began. This plan was to evacuate the remaining Romanian soldiers from the Crimean Peninsula, in a sort of Dunkirk type operation. Approximately 5,000men per day, including German, Hungarian, Croatian and Romanians were evacuated, On the 6th May, the operation ramped up in scale, with several large warships and hospital ships being used, such as the capital ship NMS Regina Maria. During this on the 9th May, the Battle of Targu Frumos ended. Although not an Axis victory, it is still used to this day to demonstrates the effective use of a mobile defence against armoured divisions. Fighting continued through Northern Romania, until the 23rd August. A coup lead by King Mihai I, backed by military leadership and opposition political parties. Antonescu was kicked out of office, and King Mihai was given full control over the Army and country. Within hours he had signed a unilateral ceasefire with the Soviet Union, ending hostilities. A few days later, Romania formally declared war against its former Allies, and began an offensive in Hungary, recapturing Transylvania, where it remains under Romanian control to this day. It’s believed by some historians that by doing this, Romania shortened the war by approxiatemly 6 months. Antonescu was arrested and imprisoned, and in 1946 was formerly convicted and executed by firing squad.
Romania and the Holocaust
Of course we can’t look at the eastern front and Hitler’s Lebensraum policy without exploring the Holocaust. Romania, like many European nations, had a history of Anti-Semitism. As discussed before Antonescu was an avant anti-semite. However, an interesting anomaly occured in Romania,often called the Antonescu Paradox. With the exception of the Jassy Pogrom that occured in June 1941, where 36 Jews were killed, Jews within Romania were relatively secure. As Robert Kaplan writes in his article, the Antonescu Paradox
“The areas to the east and north of Romania with large ethnic Romanian populations (in the cases of Bukovina and Bessarabia) that Romanian troops captured from Joseph Stalin’s forces in the first weeks of the Nazi-led invasion in 1941. But in Romania proper — Moldavia, Wallachia, and southern Transylvania — Antonescu kept up to 375,000 Jews from local slaughter and transport to death camps in German-occupied Poland.”– Robert Kaplan
What cannot be ignored is the defacto Ghettos set up in Transanistra, where it is believed up to 150,000 to 200,000 Jews were killed in arguably some of the worst concentration camps after Auschwitz I and Auschwitz-Birkenau. These camps saw Jews placed in large cages and either starved or emaciated to death. In addition, a large number of German-Romanains, who had been displaced due to the Treaty of Trianon, joined the Waffen-SS through the Volksdeutsche program. The majority of these lived in Transylvania and the Banat, and were excellent mountaineering troops. As such, the majority were enlisted in the 7th SS Mountain Volunteers ‘Prinz Eugen’, whom were deployed to Yugoslavia. This unit would go on to commit a number of atrocities, including the massacre of 276 Croats in Karlovak, Croatia. As well, after the capture of Odessa, the Army ordered soldiers to carry out a mass killing of local civilians, Jews and anyone deemed to still believe in bolshevik ideals. Approximately 100,000 Ukrianians and 25,000 to 26,000 Jews were believed to be executed by Romanian units across Odessa, Crimea and Ukraine.
During the deportation of survivors of a pogrom in Iași to Calarasi or Podul Iloaei, Romanians halt a train to throw off the bodies of those who had died on the way. Romania, July 1941.
Credit: Historisches Archiv der Stadt Koln
Why is there a lack of information?
One question that may be on your mind is, why do we not hear much about Romania, given how much of an influence they had on the war. Even within academia, there is only one concise book, Third Axis Fourth Ally, published in 1992, or they’re scapegoated for the failures of the German Army. The simple reason is that many of the British public don’t care; there was never a formal declaration of war between Britain and Romania, and therefore we did not have any reason to be hostile to them. Romania was even featured in newspaper articles from time to time. In addition, we had a direct monarchal tie to the Royal Family; Mihai attended the wedding of his cousin Elizabeth to Prince Philip in 1947. In addition, Britain trained and armed the Rromanian army in the interwar period, and had been a strategic Ally during the First World War, even harbouring some of the troops evacuated from the disastrous Gallipoli campaign. However, I think this goes deeper than this. Primarily I think it comes down to the fact Romania fought on both sides during the war, so therefore both fought against the Allies and fought with the Allies. As well, the country was primarily not in the war for an aggressive, expansionist war, like the Italians, Germans or Japanese. There was also never a systemic and organised anti-semitic genocide like that the Germans carried out; ultimately, it is difficult to both villify or make Romania the hero of any of our national war myths. Of course the post war politics of the country cannot be ignored either, with the execution of Antonescu, the forced abdication of King Mihai in 1948 and the communist government means that they again where our enemy. But due to their condemnation of Moscow for the invasion of Czechoslovakia in the 1950s and marred history with the rest of the WARSAW PACT, again, it is difficult to explore their nation’s history from a binary of good and bad. During the communist era, a number of the records from the period where they fought for the axis were also destroyed, and so it makes it difficult to find information on the nation’s army. The work of a few important people and groups, whom I thank on the next slide, has ensured the history of this important nation has remained available.
Special thanks to
Asociația Tradiția Militară
Clubul de Istorie Militară
Dragos Puscas and Victor Nitu at worldwar2.ro
Direcţia Judeţeană Constanţa a Arhivelor Naţionale
Sinziana Ionescu, Adevărul Newspaper
Muzeul Militar Naţional